HOW TO ORGANIZE YOUR THOUGHTS

2. Essential Linkwords

Introducing

Pour commencer, pour débuter,  premier point essentiel Adv : to begin with, to start with, as an introduction, first and foremost

pour commencer Prep : to begin with ..., to start with ...

Commençons par le début ... Loc : Well, let me begin at the beginning

Hesitating (alors euh !)

Eh bien ...!  Heu ... ! Bon ... ! Alors ...!  Je veux dire ..., Voyez-vous ... Adv : well ..., hmmm... , I mean , I say , you see , you know ...

Adding information

de plus, en outre, qui plus est ... aussi Adv : besides, moreover, furthermore, what is more, ... too.

en plus de, sans oublier, non seulement  ... mais encore Prep : in addition to... , not to mention ... , not only ... but also ...

Summerizing / Summing up (to resume = reprendre, repartir, recommencer)

bref, en un mot comme en mille, pour résumer, en résumé Loc : in a word, in short, to put it in a nutshell, on balance, to sum up

Expressing an alternative

non seulement ... mais encore, d'une part ... d'autre part, soit ... soit ... , ni .... ni .... Adv : not only ... but also ... , for one thing, ... , for another ... , either ...or ... , neither ... nor ... (negative alternative)

Je me demande si ... ou bien si .... , je ne sais pas si ... ou bien si ... Loc : I wonder whether ... or ... / I don't know whether ... or ...

Expressing cause

à cause de, du fait de, étant  donné, dû à Prep : because of, due to , given , owing to

parce que, puisque, comme Conj : because, since, as

Ceci est dû au fait que ... Loc : This is due to (the fact that) ...

Expressing consequence

donc, par conséquent, ainsi, conséquemment Adv : so, therefore, thus, consequently, hence

si bien que ... Conj : so that ...

par conséquent, c'est pourquoi ..., c'est la raison pour laquelle ..., pas étonnant que ... Loc : as a consequence, as a result, that is why ..., that's why ..., this is the reason why

No wonder (then) that ...

Expressing condition

sans Prep : without

à moins que, si + négation Conj : unless, if ... not ...

sinon Loc : If not, ...

Contrasting

mais, cependant, toutefois, néanmoins, en fait, à l'inverse, inversement Adv : but, yet, though, still, nevertheless, nonetheless, actually, conversely

quoique, bien que Conj : although, though, whereas

contrairement à ..., au lieu de ... , en dépit de ..., malgré ... Prep : unlike ..., instead of ... , despite ... , in spite of ..., for all

au contraire, d'autre part, inversement, en fait ... Loc : on the contrary, on the other hand, by contrast, in fact, The fact is (that) ...

Organizing a series of elements

premièrement, deuxièmement, troisièmement ... Adv : first(ly) ... second(ly) ... third(ly)

Loc : The writer starts with ... , then goes on with ..., to end with ...

At the beginning ..., then ...., at the end ...

Expressing simultaneousness

pendant ce temps, au même moment Adv : meanwhile, in the mean time

tandis que, pendant que Conj : while

durant Prep : during

Giving examples

par exemple Adv : for example, for instance

tel que, comme ... Prep : such as ... , like ...

Generalizing

généralement parlant, globalement, tout bien considéré Loc : generally speaking, by and large, all told, all things considered

Approximating

environ, en gros ... Adv : roughly speaking, about, around

Conceding

certes, sans doute ... Adv : admittedly, obviously, still

malgré, en dépit de ... Prep : in spite of ..., despite ... , for all ...

Reporting opinions

à mon  avis, en ce qui me concerne, personnellement Personal : to my mind, in my opinion, as far as I'm concerned, as I see it, personally, I think, I guess (US), I believe

Cette formule est incorrecte en anglais : On doit dire : To my mind ... NB : according to me

selon l'auteur, quant au journaliste, comme le dit l'écrivain ... Someone else's : according to the writer, as for the journalist, as the writer puts it, ...

The author considers that ...

Sidetracking (digression)

de toutes façons, n'importe comment Adv : anyway

à propos, soit dit en passant ... Loc : as a matter of fact, by the way, by the by

Explaining

en d'autres termes, c'est à dire ..., ce que je veux dire, c'est que ... Loc : in other words, that is, that is to say, viz ...(abbreviation of "videlicet" in latin)

What I mean is that ...

Expressing aim / purpose / goal

pour ... , afin de ... ,  dans le but de .... Loc : (not) to + INF, in order (not) to + INF, so as (not) to + INF

Expressing repetition or habit

encore, comme d'habitude Adv : again, as usual

Concluding

finalement Adv : finally

pour terminer, pour résumer ... Prep : to finish with ... , to sum up ...

pour conclure, pour résumer, enfin, finalement, le dernier mais non le moindre ... , bref, en un mot comme en mille ... Loc : as a conclusion, by way of conclusion, to conclude, to sum up, to finish, at last, last but not least, in short, in the end, to put it in a nutshell, in a word

 

Activities (Print the document before doing the activities)

Choose the appropriate linkword 1 (MCQ)

Choose the appropriate linkword 2 (MCQ)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkword 1

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkword 2

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkword 3

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkword 4

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkword 5

Match linkwords and notions

Code / Activities
Code / Correction